Bear Head (Dogs of War Book 2)
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Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; etal. (2014). "Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in Polar Bears". Cell. 157 (4): 785–794. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.054. PMC 4089990. PMID 24813606. If you’re in the UK and would like to support local independent bookshops, you can buy Bear Head from my store on Bookshop.org*
The peoples of eastern Asia use bears' body parts and secretions (notably their gallbladders and bile) as part of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 12,000 bears are thought to be kept on farms in China, Vietnam, and South Korea for the production of bile. Trade in bear products is prohibited under CITES, but bear bile has been detected in shampoos, wine and herbal medicines sold in Canada, the United States and Australia.  Gerhard Heldmeier (2011). "Life on low flame in hibernation". Science. 331 (6019): 866–867. Bibcode: 2011Sci...331..866H. doi: 10.1126/science.1203192. PMID 21330523. S2CID 31514297. Note that although they are called "bears" in some languages, red pandas and raccoons and their close relatives are not bears, but rather musteloids. Kindaichi, Kyōsuke; Yoshida, Minori (Winter 1949). "The Concepts behind the Ainu Bear Festival (Kumamatsuri)". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 5 (4): 345–350. doi: 10.1086/soutjanth.5.4.3628594. JSTOR 3628594. S2CID 155380619. Bernhard Family History". ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02 . Retrieved 11 March 2015.
There are two phylogenetic hypotheses on the relationships among extant and fossil bear species. One is all species of bears are classified in seven subfamilies as adopted here and related articles: Amphicynodontinae, Hemicyoninae, Ursavinae, Agriotheriinae, Ailuropodinae, Tremarctinae, and Ursinae.     Below is a cladogram of the subfamilies of bears after McLellan and Reiner (1992)  and Qiu et al. (2014):  [ clarification needed] UrsidaedeBonis, L. (2011). "A new species of Adelpharctos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) from the late Oligocene of the "Phosphorites du Quercy" (France)". Estudios Geológicos. 67 (2): 179–186. doi: 10.3989/egeol.40553.181. Soibelzon, L. H.; Tonni, E.P.; Bond, M. (2005). "The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae)" (PDF). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 20 (1–2): 105–113. Bibcode: 2005JSAES..20..105S. doi: 10.1016/j.jsames.2005.07.005. hdl: 10915/5366. a b c d e Servheen, C.; Herrero, S.; Peyton, B. (1999). Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. pp.5–10. ISBN 978-2-8317-0462-3. They are opportunistic omnivores whose diet varies from plant foliage, roots, and fruits; insect adults, larvae, and eggs; animal matter from carrion; animal matter from predation; and fish. Their dentition and digestive system reflects this varied diet.