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Butterfly Brain

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Sun, X., Yue, S. & Mangan, M. A decentralised neural model explaining optimal integration of navigational strategies in insects. Elife 9, e54026 (2020). Finkelstein, A. et al. Three-dimensional head-direction coding in the bat brain. Nature 517, 159–164 (2015). Beetz, M. J. & el Jundi, B. The influence of stimulus history on directional coding in the monarch butterfly brain. J. Comp. Physiol. A 209, 663–677 (2023).

butterfly brain? - Answers What is the size of a butterfly brain? - Answers

Franzke, M. et al. Spatial orientation based on multiple visual cues in non-migratory monarch butterflies. J. Exp. Biol. 223, 223800 (2020).


Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2021, May 14). Fruit flies and mosquitos are ‘brainier’ than most people suspect, say scientists who counted the bugs’ brain cells. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/newsroom/news-releases/fruit-flies-and-mosquitos-are-brainier-than-most-people-suspect-say-scientists-who-counted-the-bugs-brain-cells CC = corpus callosum; EOR = extent of resection; KPS = Karnofsky Performance Status; bGBM = butterfly glioblastoma; butterfly glioblastoma; corpus callosum glioblastoma; resection.

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Franzke, M. et al. Stimulus-dependent orientation strategies in monarch butterflies. J. Exp. Biol. 225, 243687 (2022).

The researchers then placed the caterpillars at the bottom of a Y-shaped tube that had ethyl alcohol fumes in one arm and no scent in the other. 78% of the conditioned larvae crawled away from the scented arm and into the one with fresh air. However, the situation gets more complicated when it comes to the brain. The brain is composed of many different parts, making it difficult to confidently pinpoint which parts undergo modifications in the cocoon. Li, Y., Pierce, A. A. & Roode, J. C. D. Variation in forewing size linked to migratory status in monarch butterflies. Anim. Migr. 3, 27–34 (2016).

butterfly Linking ecological specialisation to adaptations in butterfly

Pisokas, I., Rossler, W., Webb, B., Zeil, J. & Narendra, A. Anesthesia disrupts distance, but not direction, of path integration memory. Curr. Biol. 32, 445–452.e4 (2022).Sun, X. L., Yue, S. G. & Mangan, M. How the insect central complex could coordinate multimodal navigation. Elife 10, e7307 (2021). Zhan, S. et al. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration. Nature 514, 317–321 (2014).

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